Teresa PRIMO

Teresa PRIMO

Ricercatore Universitario

Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell'Innovazione

Centro Ecotekne Pal. O - S.P. 6, Lecce - Monteroni - LECCE (LE)

Area coordinamento laboratori, musei e servizi tecnici, Piano 1°

Telefono +39 0832 29 7807

Area di competenza:

ING-IND16

Orario di ricevimento

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Recapiti aggiuntivi

teresa.primo@unisalento.it

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Didattica

A.A. 2020/2021

ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING C.I.

Degree course AEROSPACE ENGINEERING

Course type Laurea Magistrale

Language INGLESE

Credits 3.0

Teaching hours Ore Attività frontale: 27.0

Year taught 2020/2021

For matriculated on 2019/2020

Course year 2

Structure DIPARTIMENTO DI INGEGNERIA DELL'INNOVAZIONE

Subject matter Percorso comune

A.A. 2019/2020

AERONAUTICAL TECHNOLOGIES

Degree course AEROSPACE ENGINEERING

Course type Laurea Magistrale

Language INGLESE

Credits 6.0

Teaching hours Ore Attività frontale: 54.0

Year taught 2019/2020

For matriculated on 2018/2019

Course year 2

Structure DIPARTIMENTO DI INGEGNERIA DELL'INNOVAZIONE

Subject matter PERCORSO COMUNE

A.A. 2018/2019

AERONAUTICAL TECHNOLOGIES

Degree course AEROSPACE ENGINEERING

Course type Laurea Magistrale

Language INGLESE

Credits 6.0

Teaching hours Ore Attività frontale: 54.0

Year taught 2018/2019

For matriculated on 2017/2018

Course year 2

Structure DIPARTIMENTO DI INGEGNERIA DELL'INNOVAZIONE

Subject matter PERCORSO COMUNE

Location Brindisi

Torna all'elenco
ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING C.I.

Degree course AEROSPACE ENGINEERING

Subject area ING-IND/16

Course type Laurea Magistrale

Credits 3.0

Teaching hours Ore Attività frontale: 27.0

For matriculated on 2019/2020

Year taught 2020/2021

Course year 2

Semestre Primo Semestre (dal 22/09/2020 al 18/12/2020)

Language INGLESE

Subject matter Percorso comune (999)

Knowledge of Technical Industrial Design is useful.

The course aims to provide an overview of Additive Manufacturing processes, explain their underlying physical principles, discuss current research and an appreciation for why AM is so important to many branches of industry.

It will be outlined the rapid development of this technology from humble beginnings that showed promise but still requiring much development, to one that is now maturing and showing real benefit to product development organizations.

In order to take maximum advantage from the capabilities of additive metal technology in the most economical way, will be studied how to design for this technology by following its principles. At the same time, the aspects relating to the design for additive metal manufacturing (DFAM) concept and, the act of integrating product design and additive manufacturing principles into one activity, will be illustrated.

The course introduces some of the DFAM rules of the additive metal technology by going through the details of its capabilities and constraints.

Laboratory exercises will be carried out by 3D printer with FFF (Fused Filament Fabrication) and Wax Jet Printing technology, in addition to laboratory exercises that will be focused on tools for the finite element simulation of additive processes.

  • Knowledge for characterization and use of Additive Manufacturing technologies.
  • Basic knowledge of Design for Additive Manufacturing.

Frontal lessons and computer lab exercises

The exam consists of an oral test where the student discusses the contents of the course, illustrating their level of knowledge and understanding of the topics covered.

According to the academic calendar.

- Additive manufacturing production

- Classification of additive manufacturing processes

- Overview of existing manufacturers and their specific equipment

- Additive manufacturing technologies for metallic materials: METAL POWDER, METAL WIRE, METAL SHEETS

- Powder Fusion Mechanisms (solid-state sintering, chemically-induced binding, liquid-phase sintering, full melting)

- AM technologies for plastic component production (powder, solid and liquid material)

- Additive Manufacturing Process Steps

- Design for Additive Manufacturing

- Additive manufacturing technologies and applications in the aerospace industry

- Finite element simulation techniques for additive manufacturing and its application to case studies

Testi di riferimento

  • Class Notes.
ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING C.I. (ING-IND/16)
AERONAUTICAL TECHNOLOGIES

Degree course AEROSPACE ENGINEERING

Subject area ING-IND/16

Course type Laurea Magistrale

Credits 6.0

Teaching hours Ore Attività frontale: 54.0

For matriculated on 2018/2019

Year taught 2019/2020

Course year 2

Semestre Secondo Semestre (dal 02/03/2020 al 05/06/2020)

Language INGLESE

Subject matter PERCORSO COMUNE (999)

It is necessary to have passed Mechanical Technology exam. Knowledge of Technical Industrial Design exam is useful.

The course aims to deepen the aspects related to production technologies applied in aeronautical constructions with particular reference to the choice and function performed by the construction materials and the transformation technologies connected to them.

The materials/technologies solutions mainly used for realization of airframe and structures engine will be discussed. The aspects related to the “Workability of materials, for aeronautical application, by chip removal technologies” will be treated. The processes by plastic deformation will be analyzed. The main elements that characterize the Additive Manufacturing technologies will be provided.

The study and classification of light alloys for aeronautical application as well as superalloys for airframe and engine applications will be addressed. In particular, for the nickel and titanium superalloys, the main aspects that characterize their metallurgy and workability will be studied by comparison with the applications. In the field of plastic deformation technologies, the fundamental principles of super plastic forming and its applicability to the aeronautical sector will be illustrated.

At the same time, the aspects relating to assembly processes and in particular those relating to the welding of metallic materials and riveting of the components will be treated. Lastly non-destructive testing for verification of product quality will be tackled.

Numerical exercises will be carried out on some aspects covered in the theory part to familiarize with the physical quantities that characterize them, in addition to laboratory exercises that will be focused on tools for the finite element simulation of: chip removal, forging and additive processes.

  • Knowledge of materials for aeronautical application and processes for their transformation
  • Basic knowledge for the characterization of Nichel and Titanium superalloys
  • Basic knowledge for characterization and use of Additive Manufacturing technologies
  • Basic knowledge for finite element simulation of chip removal, forging and additive processes.

Frontal lessons and computer lab exercises

The exam consists of two tests:

  1. in the first test (written), the student must solve a task related to the topics covered during the course; the test aims to determine student's ability to perform autonomously calculations related to the physical quantities that characterize the machining processes discussed during the course.
  2. in the second test (oral) the student discusses both the written and other contents of the course, illustrating their level of knowledge and understanding of the topics covered and in order to make relevant cinematic and dynamic analysis.

According to the academic calendar.

  • Critical analysis of materials/processes for aeronautical application by comparison with the reference context.
  • Exercises on the topics covered.
  • Machinability by chip removal of materials for aeronautical application.
  • Exercises on the topics covered.
  • Hot workability of metallic materials: Forging.
  • Aluminum, Nichel and Titanium alloys.
  • Jointing technologies: welding, bonding, fasteners.
  • Super plastic forming technology.
  • Additive Manufacturing technology.
  • Non-destructive quality control technologies.
  • Finite element simulation techniques for machining by chip removal, forging, additive and their application to case studies.

Testi di riferimento

  • Class Notes.
  • F.C. Campbell, Manufacturing Technology for Aerospace Structural materials, First Edition, Elsevier, 2006.
  • Mikell P. Groover, Tecnologia Meccanica.
AERONAUTICAL TECHNOLOGIES (ING-IND/16)
AERONAUTICAL TECHNOLOGIES

Degree course AEROSPACE ENGINEERING

Subject area ING-IND/16

Course type Laurea Magistrale

Credits 6.0

Teaching hours Ore Attività frontale: 54.0

For matriculated on 2017/2018

Year taught 2018/2019

Course year 2

Semestre Secondo Semestre (dal 04/03/2019 al 04/06/2019)

Language INGLESE

Subject matter PERCORSO COMUNE (999)

Location Brindisi

It is necessary to have passed Mechanical Technology exam. Knowledge of Technical Industrial Design exam is useful.

The course aims to deepen the aspects related to production technologies applied in aeronautical constructions with particular reference to the choice and function performed by the construction materials and the transformation technologies connected to them.

The materials/technologies solutions mainly used for realization of airframe and structures engine will be discussed. The aspects related to the “Workability of materials, for aeronautical application, by chip removal technologies” will be treated. The processes by plastic deformation will be analyzed. The main elements that characterize the Additive Manufacturing technologies will be provided.

The study and classification of light alloys for aeronautical application as well as superalloys for airframe and engine applications will be addressed. In particular, for the nickel and titanium superalloys, the main aspects that characterize their metallurgy and workability will be studied by comparison with the applications. In the field of plastic deformation technologies, the fundamental principles of super plastic forming and its applicability to the aeronautical sector will be illustrated.

At the same time, the aspects relating to assembly processes and in particular those relating to the welding of metallic materials and riveting of the components will be treated. Lastly non-destructive testing for verification of product quality will be tackled.

Numerical exercises will be carried out on some aspects covered in the theory part to familiarize with the physical quantities that characterize them, in addition to laboratory exercises that will be focused on tools for the finite element simulation of: chip removal and forging processes.

  • Knowledge of materials for aeronautical application and processes for their transformation
  • Basic knowledge for the characterization of Nichel and Titanium superalloys
  • Basic knowledge for characterization and use of Additive Manufacturing technologies
  • Basic knowledge for finite element simulation of chip removal, forging and additive processes.

Frontal lessons and computer lab exercises

The exam consists of two tests:

  1. in the first test (written), the student must solve a task related to the topics covered during the course; the test aims to determine student's ability to perform autonomously calculations related to the physical quantities that characterize the machining processes discussed during the course.
  2. in the second test (oral) the student discusses both the written and other contents of the course, illustrating their level of knowledge and understanding of the topics covered and in order to make relevant cinematic and dynamic analysis.

According to the academic calendar.

  • Critical analysis of materials/processes for aeronautical application by comparison with the reference context.
  • Exercises on the topics covered.
  • Machinability by chip removal of materials for aeronautical application.
  • Exercises on the topics covered.
  • Hot workability of metallic materials: Forging.
  • Aluminum, Nichel and Titanium alloys.
  • Jointing technologies: welding, bonding, fasteners.
  • Super plastic forming technology.
  • Additive Manufacturing technology.
  • Non-destructive quality control technologies.
  • Design to cost.
  • Finite element simulation techniques for machining by chip removal and forging and their application to case studies.

Testi di riferimento

  • Class Notes.
  • F.C. Campbell, Manufacturing Technology for Aerospace Structural materials, First Edition, Elsevier, 2006.
  • Mikell P. Groover, Tecnologia Meccanica.
AERONAUTICAL TECHNOLOGIES (ING-IND/16)

Pubblicazioni

  1. A. Del Prete, T. Primo,Sheet Metal forming optimization methodology for servo presses process control improvement”, Metals, MDPI, (February 2020).
  2. G. Filitti, A. Del Prete, T. Primo, M. Calabrese, “AMSA – Additive Manufacturing Spare Parts Market Application”, ISBN 978-88-941195-8-9, 2019 (contributo al libro).
  3. M. Calabrese, T. Primo, A. Del Prete, V. Capalbo, “Integration of Topology Optimisation Techniques and Additive Manufacturing: Innovative Elements”, ISBN 978-88-941195-3-4, 2018 (contributo al libro).
  4. M. Calabrese, T. Primo, A. Del Prete, G. Filitti, “Towards the definition an innovative supply chain: AMSA, an application of the cloud manufacturing”, AIP Conference Proceedings 2113, 150004 (2019); doi.org/10.1063/1.5112680, 22nd International Conference on Material Forming (ESAFORM 2019).
  5. T. Primo, M. Calabrese, A. Del Prete, A. Anglani, “Additive manufacturing integration with topology optimization methodology for innovative product design”, International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, (2017) 93:467–479 DOI 10.1007/s00170-017-0112-9.
  6. M. Calabrese, T. Primo and A. Del Prete, “Lattice structures integration with conventional topology optimization”, AIP Conference Proceedings, ISBN: 978-0-7354-1580-5, Volume number: 1896 (proceedings of the 20th international Esaform conference on material forming: Esaform 2017).
  7. M. Calabrese, T. Primo and A. Del Prete, “Optimization of machining fixture for aeronautical thin-walled components”, CIRP Design Conference 2017, Procedia CIRP 60 (2017) 32 – 37.
  8. M. Calabrese, T. Primo and A. Del Prete, “Optimization of a new concept design and the performance improvement of an industrial test case”, Nafems World Congress 2017.
  9. A. Del Prete, D. Franchino, T. PrimoL’utilizzo delle servo presse nella formatura delle lamiere”, Lamiera Maggio 201
  10. T. Primo, G. Papadia and A. Del Prete, “Shape factors and feasibility of sheet metal hydroformed components”, Key Engineering Materials Vols 651-653 (2015) pp 1134-1139, ©(2015) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland, doi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/KEM.651-653.1134.
  11. R. Franchi, A. Del Prete, T. Primo, “The use of FEA in the simulation of a metal cutting operations in the presence of random uncertainty”, Key Engineering Materials Vols 651-653 (2015) pp 1247-1254, ©(2015) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland, doi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/KEM.651-653.1247.
  12. A. Spagnolo, T. Primo, G. Papadia and A. Del Prete, “Numerical – experimental correlation of sheet hydroformed component”, Key Engineering Materials Vols 651-653 (2015) pp 1140-1145, ©(2015) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland, doi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/KEM.651-653.1140.
  13. A. Del Prete, T. Primo, R. Franchi, “Super-Nickel Ortogonal Turning Operations Optimization”, Procedia CIRP 8 (2013) 164 – 169, Published by Elsevier B.V., 14th CIRP Conference on Modelling of Machining Operations (CIRP CMMO) ISSN: 2212-8271.
  14. A. Del Prete, G. Papadia, T. Primo and E. Mariano, “Modelling of damage in blanking processes”, Key Engineering Materials, Vols. 554-557 (2013), pp. 2432-2439, ©(2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland, doi: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/KEM.554 557.2432, ISSN 1013-9826, ISBN-13: 978-3-03785-719-9.
  15. G. Papadia, T. Primo and S. Schipa, “Numerical modeling of ductile plastic damage in tensile test”, Key Engineering Materials, Vols. 554-557 (2013), pp. 93-98, ©(2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland, doi: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/KEM.554-557.93, ISSN 1013-9826, ISBN-13: 978-3-03785-719-9.
  16. A. Del Prete, G. Papadia, T. Primo and E. Mariano, “Development of accurate numerical models for bending of aluminum tailored blanks”, Key Engineering Materials Vol. 549 (2013), pp. 205-212, ©(2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland, doi: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/KEM.549.205, ISSN 1013-9826, ISBN – 13: 978-3-03785-671-0.
  17. A. Del Prete, G. Papadia, T. Primo and S. Schipa, “Blank Shape Optimization in Sheet Hydroforming Process”, Key Engineering Materials Vol. 549 (2013), pp. 197-204, ©(2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland, doi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/KEM.549.197, ISSN 1013-9826, ISBN – 13: 978-3-03785-671-0.
  18. A. Del Prete, G. Papadia, T. Primo, “Bending Testing Rig Development through CAE Tools Application”, Key Engineering Materials Vols. 504-506 (2012), pp. 803-808, ©(2012) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland, doi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/KEM.504-506.803, ISSN 1013-9826, ISBN – 13 978-3-03785-366-5.
  19. T. Primo, B. Manisi, “Engineering data management for metal forming process”, European HyperWorks Technology Conference (HTC) 2011, 7-9 November 2011, Bonn, Germany.
  20. A. Del Prete, T. Primo, G. Papadia, “Computer Aided Modelling of Tangential Stretch Forming of Titanium Alloy Aeronautical Panels”, 10th International Conference Technology of Plasticity, 25-30 September, Aachen, Germany (ICTP 2011), pp. 649-654, ISBN 978-3-514-00784-0.
  21. A. Del Prete, G. Papadia and T. Primo, “Sheet metal forming process design rules development”, Key Engineering Materials Vol. 473 (2011), pp. 765-772, ISSN 1013-9826, ©(2011) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland, doi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/KEM.473.765. ISBN 3-03785-083-1.
  22. A. Del Prete, G. Papadia, A. A. De Vitis and T. Primo, “Finite Element Simulations for Sheet Warm Hydroforming”, The 14th International ESAFORM Conference on Material Forming, AIP Conf. Proc. 1353, 313-318 (2011); doi: 10.1063/1.3589534, ©2011 American Institute of Physics, ISBN: 978-0-7354-0911-8.
  23. A. Del Prete, T. Primo, G. Papadia, B. Manisi, “Design for Manufacturing for Energy Absorption Systems”, The 14th International ESAFORM Conference on Material Forming AIP Conf. Proc. 1353, 1620-1625 (2011); doi: 10.1063/1.3589748, © 2011 American Institute of Physics ISBN: 978-0-7354-0911-8.
  24. A. Del Prete, T. Primo, A. Anglani, “Strumenti di Engineering intelligence per la gestione e la verifica della fattibilità di componenti ottenuti mediante stampaggio lamiera in ambito aeronautico”, Analisi e Calcolo (A&C), 47 (Novembre 2011) pp. 11-15, ISSN 1128-3874.
  25. A. Del Prete, T. Primo, A. Anglani, “Metodi ed Applicativi di supporto alla progettazione ed ottimizzazione dei processi di stampaggio lamiera in ambito aeronautico”, Analisi e Calcolo (A&C), 45 (2011) pp. 9-13, ISSN 1128-3874.
  26. Del Prete A., Primo T., Strano M., “The use of FEA packages in the simulation of drawing operation with springback, in the presence of random uncertainty”, Finite Elements in Analysis and Design Journal, 46 (2010), pp. 527-534.
  27. Del Prete Antonio, Primo Teresa, Anglani Alfredo, “Metal forming process effect evaluation on structural behavior of an aeronautic panel”, CP1252, ©2010 American Institute of Physics, edited by F. Barlat, Y. H. Moon, and M. G. Lee, pp. 320-327, ISBN 978-0-7354-0800-5.
  28. A. Del Prete, T. Primo and A. Anglani, “Development of a non conventional bulging test through numerical simulation”, CIRP ICME '10 - 7th CIRP Int. Conf. on Intelligent Computation in Manufacturing Engineering, 23-25 June 2010, Capri, ISBN 978-88-95028-65-1.
  29. T. Primo, A. Anglani, A. Elia, A. Caruso, “Non Conventional Metalforming Process Automation”, European HyperWorks Technology Conference (EHTC) 2009, 2-5 November 2009, Ludwigsburg, Germany.
  30. A. Del Prete, T. Primo and A. Anglani, A. Caruso, S. Paiano, “Springback Compensation for Large Size Metal Formed Aeronautic Components”, AITeM 2009 – 9° Convegno Associazione Italiana di Tecnologia Meccanica, Enhancing the Science of Manufacturing, 7-9 September 2009, ISBN 88-95057-07-4.
  31. A. Del Prete, T. Primo, G. Papadia, B. Manisi, “Feasibility evaluation of sheet metal hydroformed components through shape factors application”, Key Engineering Materials Vols. 410-411 (2009) pp. 25-36, ©(2009) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland, doi: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/KEM.410-411.25, ISSN 1013-9826, ISBN 0-87849-336-0, ISBN-13 978-0-87849-336-4.
  32. A. Anglani, A. Del Prete, T. Primo, A. Caruso, S. Paiano, “Sistemi di Sviluppo ed Ottimizzazione del Processo di Stampaggio di Componenti Aeronautici in Leghe di Alluminio e Materiali Innovativi”, Giornata sulla Ricerca nel Settore Aerospaziale in Puglia, 4 Dicembre 2008, Bari.
  33. A. Del Prete, A. Anglani, T. Primo, A. Elia, “Numerical Simulation as support tool for quality control system development for sheet metal stamped parts”, International Conference on Technology of Plasticity, 7-11 September 2008, Korea.
  34. Del Prete A., Anglani A., Primo T., Manisi B., “Numerical and Experimental Validation for Sheet Metal Hydroforming Process Rules”, Steel research international 79 (2008), Special Edition Metal Forming Conference 2008, Volume 2, pp. 301-308, ISBN 978-3-514-00754-3.
  35. Del Prete A., Strano M., Primo T., Mentella A., “Localized Warming for the Springback Correction in Sheet Metal Forming”, 7th International Conference and Workshop on Numerical Simulation of 3D Sheet Metal Forming Processes, Numisheet 2008, September 1-5, 2008 – Interlaken, Switzerland, ISBN 978-3-909386-80-2, pp. 521-526.
  36. A. Del Prete, A. Anglani, T. Primo, A. Spagnolo, “Computer Aided Simulation as valid tool for sheet hydroforming process development”, International Journal of Material Forming (2008), Suppl 1:317–322, DOI 10.1007/s12289-008-0340-5, ©Springer/ESAFORM 2008, ISSN 1960-6206 (Print), ISSN: 1960-6214 (On line).
  37. A. Del Prete, T. Primo, A. Elia, “CAE tools as valid opportunity to improve quality control systems performances for sheet metal formed components”, 9th Biennial ASME Conference on Engineering Systems Design and Analysis" (ESDA 08) - Haifa, Israel, ISBN: 978-0-7918-4835-7 pp. 329-3
  38. Del Prete A., Anglani A., Primo T., Spagnolo A., “Non-Conventional Metal Forming Tooling set up through Computer Aided Simulation”, APCOM’07, December 3-6, 2007, Kyoto, JAPAN.
  39. D. Bardaro, T. Primo, S. Schipa, A. Gerardi, G. Pasquero, M. Martena, “Thermomechanical and reliability analysis for the design of an innovative gas turbine ceramic vane”, EnginSoft User’ Meeting, 25-26 October 2007, Bergamo.
  40. Del Prete A., Primo T., Anglani A., “Improvement of Sheet Metal Hydroforming Simulation Reliability”, 8th A.I.T.e.M. Conference, Enhancing the Science of Manufacturing, September 10-12nd 2007, Montecatini Terme, ISBN 88-7957-264-4, pp. 111-112.
  41. Del Prete A., Elia A., Primo T., Manisi B., “Process Automation Tools Development for Sheet Metal Hydroforming Simulation”, ISC 5th International Simulation Conference, Delft, The Netherlands, EUROSIS publication, June 2007, ISBN 978-90-77381-34-2, pp. 114-118.
  42. Del Prete A., Primo T., Papadia G., Manisi B., “Process Rules for Sheet Metal Hydroforming”, ISC 5th International Simulation Conference, Delft, The Netherlands, EUROSIS publication, June 2007, ISBN 978-90-77381- 34-2, pp. 109-113.
  43. Del Prete A., Primo T., De Vitis A. A., “Non Deterministic Approach in Metal Forming Springback Simulation”, Key Engineering Materials Vol. 344 (2007), pp. 399-410, © (2007) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland, doi: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/KEM.344.399, ISBN 0-87849-437-5, ISBN-13 978-0-87849-43, ISSN 1013-9826.
  44. Bardaro D., Corvaglia P., Manni O., Modarelli R., Primo T., “Experimental and numerical study of the behaviour of solid and hollow-core FRP-confined concrete columns”, 2nd International fib Congress, Napoli, 5-8, June 2006.
  45. Poster: Bardaro D., Corvaglia P., Manni O., Modarelli R., Primo T., Spagnolo M., “Experimental Study and Numerical Modelling of Solid and Hollow Frp-Confined Concrete Members”, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, 10-12 April, 2006.
  46. Bardaro D., Corvaglia P., Manni O., Modarelli R., Primo T., “Numerical modelling of solid and hollow FRP-confined concrete members”, TCN CAE 2005 (International Conference on CAE and Computational Technologies for Industry), 5-8 October 2005 Lecce.
  47. R. Rella, P. Siciliano, F. Quaranta, T. Primo, L. Valli, L. Schenetti, A. Mucci, D. Iarossi, “Gas sensing measurements and analysis of the optical properties of poly-[3-(butylthio)thiophene] Langmuir – Blodgett films”, “Sensors and Actuators B, 3431 (2000)”.